How can ovarian hyperstimulation be prevented?

Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) is a condition that can occur in women undergoing fertility treatments, particularly those involving the use of medications to stimulate the ovaries. Bromocriptine, a dopamine receptor agonist, is sometimes used as a preventive measure to reduce the risk and severity of OHSS.

What is the mechanism of action of bromocriptine?
  1. Dopaminergic Modulation:
    • Bromocriptine primarily acts on dopamine receptors in the hypothalamus. By doing so, it modulates the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which is a key regulator of the reproductive system.
    • Gonadotropins, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), play a crucial role in ovarian stimulation during fertility treatments. By influencing the release of GnRH, Bromocriptine indirectly affects the secretion of these gonadotropins.
  2. Reduction in LH Surge:
    • One of the triggers for OHSS is the exaggerated surge in LH that occurs during the final stages of ovarian stimulation. This LH surge can lead to the release of a large number of eggs and an increase in vascular permeability in the ovaries, contributing to the development of OHSS.
    • Bromocriptine may help to mitigate this LH surge, preventing the ovaries from becoming overly sensitive to the hormonal signals that induce hyperstimulation.
  3. Prevention of Excessive Ovarian Response:
    • Fertility treatments aim to stimulate the ovaries to produce multiple follicles and eggs. However, in some cases, the ovaries may respond excessively, leading to the production of a large number of eggs.
    • Bromocriptine, by modulating the dopaminergic tone, may help to prevent an exaggerated ovarian response, reducing the likelihood of an excessive number of eggs maturing during the treatment cycle.
  4. Vascular Stability:
    • OHSS is associated with increased vascular permeability, leading to the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity and other tissues. Bromocriptine’s influence on the hormonal milieu may contribute to better vascular stability, helping to minimize fluid leakage and the development of severe OHSS.

It’s crucial to emphasize that the use of Bromocriptine or any other preventive measures for OHSS should be carefully considered on an individual basis. The decision to use Bromocriptine as a preventive measure is typically made by fertility specialists based on the patient’s risk factors, response to ovarian stimulation medications, and overall health.

You may need to take Bromocriptine for a few months for it to reduce your prolactin to a normal level. ovulation is often restored once your prolactin level is within the normal range and you’ll have your period again. Induction of ovulation and pregnancy by bromocriptine is remarkably safe

Patients undergoing fertility treatments should have close monitoring by healthcare professionals, and treatment plans should be tailored to individual needs and potential risks. As with any medical intervention, the use of Bromocriptine should be discussed with a qualified healthcare provider who can provide personalized guidance based on the specific circumstances of the patient

Verified by: Rami Diab (December 5, 2023)

Citation: Rami Diab. (December 5, 2023). How can ovarian hyperstimulation be prevented?. Medcoi Journal of Medicine, 1(2). urn:medcoi:article22606.

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