Infectious mononucleosis clinical picture and treatment



Infectious mononucleosis (Filatov’s disease, glandular fever or mono, الحمى الغدية), is a common infectious disease of early adulthood that spreads through saliva and is usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is one of the most common viruses to affect the humans).

Pathogen – Epstein-Barr virus (family Herpesviridae).

• Source of infection: the patient or a virus carrier.
• Mechanism of transmission aerogenic path – airborne.

Clinical picture

Incubation period 5-20 days. Start gradually.

Intoxication syndrome Temperature rising from sub-febrile digits to 39 C and remaining for 1-4 weeks, of decreasing character, weakness, malaise, and muscle pain are also observed in this period.

Changes in the throat: the clinical picture of the throat shows a bluetongue, follicular, lacunar, and necrotizing tonsillitis.

Generalized lymphadenopathy syndrome.

Hepatolienal syndrome with the possible development of jaundice,
rash occurs in 25% of patients, without having a specific pattern, appearance, nor location, rash may be maculopapular, roseolous and/or may appear as tiny spots (finely-points).

Complications are rare, mostly arising from an upper respiratory tract inflammation.

Differential diagnosis is carried out with diphtheria, sore throat, SARS, viral hepatitis, yersiniosis, Hodgkin’s disease.

Laboratory diagnosis

In the analysis of blood – moderate leukocytosis, neutropenia, lymphocytosis, monocytosis, the appearance of atypical mononuclear cells (more than 12%).

Serological diagnosis – TPHA test (Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay checking for reactive Hofbauer cells), Paul Bunnell test (a diagnostic agglutination titer of 1:32 or higher confirms the diagnosis), or the rapid monospot test (a form of the heterophile antibody test for infectious Epstein–Barr virus infection and mononucleosis).

Treatment  no specific etiotropic therapy for the treatment of mononucleosis, but therapeutic procedures such as detoxification therapy, desensitizing, and symptomatic (gargling with antiseptic solutions, vitamins) are usually carried.

In case the bacterial flora activated the immune system – antibiotics.

Verified by: Dr.Diab (January 7, 2017)

Citation: Dr.Diab. (January 7, 2017). Infectious mononucleosis clinical picture and treatment. Medcoi Journal of Medicine, 7(2). urn:medcoi:article15976.

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