What is Bacterial Vaginosis? Causes Diagnosis and Treatment

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What is Bacterial Vaginosis? Causes Diagnosis and Treatment

Bacterial vaginosis (Бактериальный вагиноз, гарднереллез) is a gynecological infectious polymicrobial disease associated with a change in the microflora of the vagina. Inflammation is not observed. BV is characterized by profuse and prolonged discharge, in which gonococci, Trichomonas, fungi and other pathogenic microorganisms are not found.

Gardnerellosis is a disease that causes the growth of Gardnerella (Gardnerella vaginalis)

Bacterial vaginosis sometimes occurs with vaginitis due to complex changes in the vaginal flora, in which the number of lactobacilli is reduced.

Discharge due to vaginitis is accompanied by itching, redness, and sometimes dysuria, vulvodynia, or mild bleeding. BV elevates the acidity of the vagina, causing an odor of ammonia

Is bacterial vaginosis contagious?

BV is not a sexually transmitted infection (STI). However, having unprotected sex with lots of different partners increase your risk for BV

When you share sex toys without cleansing you’re as well sharing bodily fluids, which puts you at risk of getting a sexually transmitted infection (STI)

Can you spread bacterial vaginosis through sex?

Although BV is not yet considered a sexually transmitted infection, it is more common among sex workers and in people who have unprotected sex with multiple partners, in people whose sex partner also has BV, and in people who share sex toys without cleansing. BV can be spread through oral-genital contact, and fingers. Other common risk factors for BV include douching and cigarette smoking.

Cigarette smoking is the strongest non-sexual risk factor for BV.

Can BV clear up on its own?

In most cases, asymptomatic Bacterial vaginosis (BV) can clear up on its own. However, patients with mild to severe symptoms should contact their doctor to get tested and treated

Patients being managed at home should be advised to closely monitor their symptoms and to learn when to seek medical advice from their GP

Symptomatic pregnant women should contact their doctor to get tested and treated, because BV can increase their chance of having a preterm birth.

Patients with confirmed BV infection are usually treated with antibiotic tablets or gels or creams

How do u know if u have a BV?

Clinical manifestations of Bacterial vaginosis include:

1- A thin, white, gray or green, malodorous (foul-smelling, fishy) discharge

2- Abdominal pain

3- Dysuria

4- Vulvar itch

5- Itching around the outside of the vagina

Nearly half of women with BV report no symptoms

What test is used to detect Bacterial Vaginosis?

Your doctor will examine your vagina and place a pH test strip in it to check the acidity of your vagina.

A vaginal pH of 4.5 or higher is a sign of BV

A urine culture test can also identify what type of bacteria or yeast caused the urinary tract infection (UTI)

What does a vaginal bacterial culture test for?

A bacterial vaginosis test (Endocervical culture) is a test that helps identify infection in the female genital tract. During a vaginal examination, the doctor uses a swab to collect samples of mucus and cells from the endocervix (the area around the opening of the uterus). The samples are sent to the testing laboratory as soon as possible after collection. There, specimens are placed in a petri dish to culture bacteria.

The samples should be transported at room temperature.

A bacterial vaginosis test is done to determine the cause of abnormal vaginal discharge, vaginitis, lower abdominal pain, or other signs of vaginal infection.

How can I test myself for BV?

You need to collect a sample of your own vaginal discharge by using a swab, then send the specimen cup to a nearby lab. You will get results in a few days depending on the kit you choose

Does bacterial vaginosis have clue cells?

A vaginal wet mount, also called a wet prep or vaginal smear is a test to find the cause of bacterial vaginosis.
A sample of vaginal fluid is checked for bacteria, WBC, and clue cells (epithelial cells heavily covered with adherent bacteria). If Lactobacillus is absent (a Lactobacillus-Deficient Vaginal Microbiota) and clue cells are present, it means you may have bacterial vaginosis.

What happens if bacterial vaginosis goes untreated?

If left untreated, BV may increase your risk for Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) where BV bacteria infect the uterus or fallopian tubes.

Having BV increases your risk for developing other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) like herpes, chlamydia, and gonorrhea.

How long does bacterial vaginosis last?

While bacterial vaginosis may go away on its own, most doctors use antibiotics (prescribed pills or vaginal cream) to treat it. With treatment, bacterial vaginosis usually clears up in a week.

How to treat bacterial vaginosis?

Bacterial vaginosis is treated with antibiotics. Most people are prescribed Flagyl (metronidazole). To treat bacterial vaginosis, your doctor may prescribe two 500 mg metronidazole tablets twice a day, for 5 to 7 days (orally). Flagyl 500 mg suppository is also available, as a suppository that you insert into your vagina

How can you get rid of a bacterial infection without antibiotics?

Eight best natural antibiotics

1- Add Alliums to your diet, such as garlic, onion, etc.
2- Eat foods high in rutin
3- Consume two tablespoons (about 40 grams) of honey a day
4- Drink one or two cups of ginger tea a day
5- Echinacea is promoted as a dietary supplement for a wide range of diseases, including the flu, chicken pox, genital herpes, bacterial vaginosis, etc.
6- Over-the-counter goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) preparations are used to combat inflammation and infection
7- Drink one or two cups of clove tea per day
8- Try adding oregano to your diet

Verified by: Dr.Diab (October 5, 2022)

Citation: Dr.Diab. (October 5, 2022). What is Bacterial Vaginosis? Causes Diagnosis and Treatment. Medcoi Journal of Medicine, 2(2). urn:medcoi:article21064.

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