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  1. CagA+ H. pylori strains are associated with protracted inflammation of the gastric mucosa and increased risk of gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux and reflux esophagitis (GERD), and gastric cancer due to accumulation of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa (antrum and fundus). (R. Diab, MD, Medcoi LLC, 09 Mar, 2018)

    The inflammatory response to cagA+ helicobacter pylori strains and H. pylori–induced cytokines induce profound changes in the gastric epithelial cells, resulting in an active inflammatory microenvironment that is maintained by immune cells such as T cells (including T-helper cells and Th1 cells), NK cells (natural killer cells), eosinophils, neutrophils, and macrophages. (R. Diab, MD, Medcoi LLC, 09 Mar, 2018)

     

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