Eating and Digestive Disorders Overview, Pathophysiology, Novel Therapies

Click for Info
Fertility Booster
Antihyperglycemic Drug
Antihyperglycemic Drug
Antihyperglycemic Drug
Fertility Boost
Pregnancy Support
Online Pharmacy Medcoi.com

Eating disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by abnormal eating habits and attitudes towards food, weight, and body shape. The most common types of eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder.

The pathophysiology of eating disorders is complex and involves a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. There is evidence to suggest that genetic factors play a role in the development of eating disorders, and certain mutations in genes related to appetite regulation and metabolism may contribute to the development of these conditions.

The pathophysiology of eating disorders involves a complex interplay between biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Genetics, neurobiology, and cultural influences are also thought to contribute to the development of these conditions.

There is evidence to suggest that eating disorders affect both men and women, but they are more commonly diagnosed in women. This may be due in part to cultural factors that place a greater emphasis on thinness and body shape for women than for men. Men may also be less likely to seek treatment for eating disorders due to stigma and a lack of awareness of the condition.

Research has identified several genetic mutations that may contribute to the development of eating disorders. For example, mutations in the ANKRD26 gene have been associated with an increased risk of anorexia nervosa, while mutations in the BDNF gene have been linked to binge-eating disorder. Research has also identified a number of psychological factors that may contribute to the development of eating disorders, such as low self-esteem, perfectionism, and negative body image.

Genes related to appetite regulation and metabolism may also play a role in the development of eating disorders. For example, variations in the FTO gene have been linked to an increased risk of obesity, which may in turn increase the risk of developing eating disorders.

Hormones such as ghrelin, leptin, and insulin play a key role in regulating appetite and eating behavior. Dysregulation of these hormones may contribute to the development of eating disorders.

Several hormones play a role in both digestion and eating behavior. Here are some of the most important ones:

  1. Ghrelin: Ghrelin is a hormone produced in the stomach that stimulates appetite and promotes food intake. It also plays a role in the regulation of body weight and energy balance.
  2. Leptin: Leptin is a hormone produced by fat cells that helps to regulate appetite and body weight. It acts on the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and increase energy expenditure.
  3. Insulin: Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels by promoting the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. It also plays a role in the regulation of appetite and food intake.
  4. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1): GLP-1 is a hormone produced in the intestines that helps to regulate blood sugar levels and appetite. It slows down the emptying of the stomach, which can help to promote feelings of fullness.
  5. Cholecystokinin (CCK): CCK is a hormone produced in the small intestine that helps to regulate appetite and digestion. It is released in response to the presence of fat and protein in the small intestine, and helps to slow down the emptying of the stomach and promote feelings of fullness.
  6. Cortisol: Cortisol is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands in response to stress. It can affect both digestion and eating behavior by increasing appetite and promoting the storage of fat in the body.
  7. Serotonin: Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that plays a role in the regulation of mood, appetite, and digestion. It is produced in the gastrointestinal tract and can affect the contractions of the intestines and the sensation of fullness.

Overall, these hormones work together to regulate appetite, digestion, and body weight. Imbalances in these hormones can lead to a variety of digestive and eating disorders.

The most common underlying conditions that contribute to eating disorders include anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Digestive problems such as gastroparesis and irritable bowel syndrome may also be associated with the development of eating disorders.

Digestive problems can sometimes contribute to the development of eating disorders. For example, individuals with conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), or celiac disease may experience discomfort or pain when eating certain foods, which can lead to restrictive eating behaviors.

There are also several underlying conditions that may contribute to the development of eating disorders. These may include:

  1. Depression and anxiety: These mental health conditions are commonly associated with eating disorders and may contribute to the development of disordered eating behaviors.
  2. Body dysmorphic disorder: Individuals with this condition may have a distorted perception of their appearance and may feel a strong desire to change their body shape or weight.
  3. Substance abuse: Substance abuse and addiction can co-occur with eating disorders, as individuals may use drugs or alcohol to cope with underlying emotional or psychological issues.
  4. Trauma: Experiencing trauma or abuse may contribute to the development of eating disorders, as individuals may use disordered eating behaviors as a way to cope with feelings of anxiety or distress.
  5. Cultural or societal pressures: Cultural or societal pressures to achieve a certain body type or weight may contribute to the development of eating disorders, particularly in individuals who are genetically predisposed to these conditions.
  6. Family history: Eating disorders may run in families, suggesting a genetic component to the development of these conditions.

Eating disorders are complex conditions with multiple contributing factors. Addressing underlying physical and psychological issues is often necessary in order to effectively treat these conditions.

There are several psychological conditions that can affect digestion and eating habits. Common psychological conditions that can affect digestion and eating habits include:

  1. Depression: Depression can affect appetite, leading to either a decrease or an increase in food intake. It can also cause changes in the way the digestive system works, leading to symptoms such as nausea, bloating, and constipation.
  2. Anxiety: Anxiety can cause a variety of digestive symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, and nausea. It can also lead to changes in eating habits, such as overeating or undereating.
  3. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): People with OCD may develop obsessive thoughts about food or eating, which can lead to restrictive eating patterns or compulsive overeating. They may also engage in rituals related to eating, such as excessive chewing or rearranging food on a plate.
  4. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): PTSD can cause digestive symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea. It can also lead to changes in appetite and eating habits, such as overeating or avoiding certain foods.
  5. Binge eating disorder: Binge eating disorder is a condition in which a person regularly consumes large amounts of food in a short period of time, often feeling a loss of control during these episodes. It can be triggered by stress, anxiety, or depression.
  6. Anorexia nervosa: Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder in which a person restricts food intake in order to maintain a low body weight. It is often accompanied by distorted body image and a fear of weight gain.
  7. Bulimia nervosa: Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder in which a person engages in binge eating followed by purging behaviors such as vomiting or excessive exercise. It is often accompanied by feelings of guilt and shame.

Psychological conditions that affect digestion and eating habits can be complex and require a multidisciplinary approach to treatment. Psychotherapy, medication, and nutritional counseling may all be part of the treatment plan.

Rest during biological hours is important to prevent eating disorders because disrupted sleep patterns can affect the regulation of hormones that control appetite and metabolism.

Rest during biological hours is important for preventing eating disorders because it helps to regulate the circadian rhythm, which is the natural 24-hour cycle that governs many physiological processes in the body, including digestion and metabolism. Disruptions to the circadian rhythm, such as shift work or irregular sleep patterns, can lead to imbalances in hormones that regulate appetite, digestion, and metabolism, and may increase the risk of developing eating disorders.

Studies have shown that irregular sleep patterns and disruptions to the circadian rhythm are associated with a higher risk of obesity and other eating disorders. For example, people who work night shifts or have irregular sleep patterns are more likely to consume high-calorie, high-fat foods and to have metabolic disorders such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

Resting during biological hours can help to regulate the circadian rhythm and promote healthy eating habits. This means going to bed and waking up at regular times, avoiding caffeine and alcohol before bedtime, and creating a calm and comfortable sleep environment. By promoting healthy sleep habits and regulating the circadian rhythm, we can help to prevent eating disorders and promote overall health and well-being.

The circadian rhythm is a natural, internal process that regulates the 24-hour cycle of physiological processes in the body, such as sleep-wake cycles, hormone release, and metabolism. This rhythm is controlled by the master clock in the brain, called the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which responds to light and other cues to regulate the body’s natural processes.

Maintaining the health of the circadian rhythm is important for overall health and well-being. Here are some tips to help maintain a healthy circadian rhythm:

  1. Stick to a regular sleep schedule: Going to bed and waking up at the same time every day can help regulate the circadian rhythm.
  2. Get plenty of natural light: Exposure to natural light during the day can help regulate the circadian rhythm and improve sleep quality.
  3. Limit exposure to artificial light: Exposure to artificial light, especially blue light from electronic devices, can disrupt the circadian rhythm and make it harder to fall asleep.
  4. Practice good sleep hygiene: This includes creating a comfortable sleep environment, avoiding caffeine and alcohol before bedtime, and practicing relaxation techniques such as meditation or deep breathing.

Factors that can affect the health of the circadian rhythm include jet lag, shift work, irregular sleep patterns, and exposure to artificial light.

Imbalances in the circadian rhythm can lead to a variety of health problems, including sleep disorders, depression, anxiety, metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes, and even certain types of cancer. For example, disruption of the circadian rhythm can lead to decreased insulin sensitivity, which can contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes.

Some viruses such as the norovirus have been associated with the development of eating disorders.

There are several viruses that can contribute to eating and digestive disorders. Some examples include:

  1. Norovirus: This is a highly contagious virus that can cause gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the stomach and intestines. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach cramps.
  2. Rotavirus: This is another highly contagious virus that can cause gastroenteritis, particularly in children. Symptoms include diarrhea, vomiting, and fever.
  3. Hepatitis A: This virus can cause inflammation of the liver, which can lead to symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
  4. Adenovirus: This virus can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and respiratory symptoms such as cough and sore throat.
  5. Cytomegalovirus (CMV): This virus can cause inflammation of the digestive tract, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and vomiting.

Not all cases of eating and digestive disorders are caused by viruses, and that there can be many other contributing factors such as diet, stress, and underlying medical conditions. Additionally, many viruses that can cause gastroenteritis are often spread through contaminated food or water, so proper food handling and hygiene practices can help reduce the risk of infection.

Top 10 Eating Disorders with Highest Mortality Rates:

  1. Anorexia nervosa
  2. Bulimia nervosa
  3. Binge eating disorder
  4. Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID)
  5. Orthorexia nervosa
  6. Pica
  7. Rumination disorder
  8. Night eating syndrome
  9. Purging disorder
  10. Diabulimia

It’s important to note that eating disorders can be extremely dangerous and can lead to a variety of medical complications, including heart failure, electrolyte imbalances, and organ damage. Any eating disorder should be taken seriously and treated promptly.

Top 10 Eating Disorders that Can Be Cured:

  1. Anorexia nervosa
  2. Bulimia nervosa
  3. Binge eating disorder
  4. Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID)
  5. Orthorexia nervosa
  6. Pica
  7. Rumination disorder
  8. Night eating syndrome
  9. Purging disorder
  10. Diabulimia

Factors Leading to Eating Disorders:

  1. Genetics: There is evidence to suggest that eating disorders may have a genetic component, as these conditions often run in families.
  2. Psychological factors: Eating disorders are often associated with anxiety, depression, and other mental health conditions. Individuals with low self-esteem or poor body image may be more likely to develop an eating disorder.
  3. Cultural and social factors: Societal pressure to achieve a certain body type or weight may contribute to the development of eating disorders. This pressure may be particularly intense for individuals in certain industries, such as modeling or professional athletics.
  4. Environmental factors: Trauma or abuse may contribute to the development of eating disorders, as individuals may use disordered eating behaviors as a way to cope with feelings of anxiety or distress.
  5. Dieting: Dieting and restrictive eating behaviors may contribute to the development of eating disorders, particularly in individuals who are genetically predisposed to these conditions.

Some novel therapies for chronic digestive conditions include fecal microbiota transplantation and the use of probiotics.

There are a number of novel therapies being developed for chronic digestive conditions, including:

  1. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT): FMT involves transferring fecal matter from a healthy donor into the gut of a person with a digestive condition. This therapy has shown promise in treating conditions such as Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome.
  2. Anti-inflammatory agents: Certain anti-inflammatory agents, such as biologic drugs that target specific proteins in the immune system, have shown promise in treating conditions such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
  3. Stem cell therapy: Stem cell therapy involves using stem cells to repair damaged tissues in the gut. This therapy is being explored as a potential treatment for conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer.
  4. Electrical stimulation: Electrical stimulation of the nerves that control the digestive system has shown promise in treating conditions such as gastroparesis and irritable bowel syndrome.
  5. Dietary interventions: Certain dietary interventions, such as the low-FODMAP diet, have shown promise in treating conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome.
  6. Probiotics and prebiotics: Probiotics and prebiotics are being studied as potential treatments for a variety of digestive conditions, as these substances may help to restore balance to the gut microbiome.

It’s important to note that many of these therapies are still in the early stages of development and may not yet be widely available. It’s also important to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new therapy for a digestive condition.

The top 10 novel drugs for eating and digestive disorders that are currently in development or have recently been approved:

  1. Semaglutide: A GLP-1 receptor agonist that has been approved for the treatment of obesity. It works by reducing appetite and increasing feelings of fullness.
  2. Ozanimod: A sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator that has been approved for the treatment of moderate to severe ulcerative colitis.
  3. Larazotide acetate: A tight junction modulator that is being developed for the treatment of celiac disease. It works by reducing the permeability of the intestinal barrier.
  4. Etrasimod: A sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator that is being developed for the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.
  5. Linaclotide: A guanylate cyclase-C agonist that has been approved for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation and chronic idiopathic constipation.
  6. Tenapanor: A sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 inhibitor that has been approved for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.
  7. Rifamycin SV/MMX: An antibiotic that is being developed for the treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.
  8. Elobixibat: A bile acid transporter inhibitor that has been approved for the treatment of chronic constipation.
  9. SGM-1019: A selective histamine H2 receptor antagonist that is being developed for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
  10. AMG 634: A human monoclonal antibody that is being developed for the treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis. It works by blocking the activity of a protein called thymic stromal lymphopoietin, which is believed to play a role in the development of the condition.

There are currently no medications specifically approved for the treatment of eating disorders, but some antidepressants and antipsychotics may be used to address related symptoms such as depression and anxiety.

The prevalence and specific types of eating disorders can vary by country, but the most common types worldwide include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder.

According to the National Eating Disorders Association, the top 10 eating disorders in the USA are:

  1. Anorexia Nervosa: Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by a distorted body image, an intense fear of gaining weight, and a severe restriction of food intake that can lead to dangerously low body weight.
  2. Bulimia Nervosa: Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by purging through vomiting, excessive exercise, or the use of laxatives.
  3. Binge Eating Disorder: Binge eating disorder is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, during which a person eats an unusually large amount of food while feeling out of control.
  4. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID): ARFID is an eating disorder characterized by a persistent refusal to eat certain foods or a limited intake of food, which can lead to significant weight loss, malnutrition, and other health problems.
  5. Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED): OSFED is an umbrella term that includes eating disorders that do not meet the criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder.
  6. Pica: Pica is an eating disorder characterized by the persistent eating of non-food items, such as dirt, clay, chalk, or paper.
  7. Rumination Disorder: Rumination disorder is an eating disorder characterized by the repeated regurgitation and re-chewing of food, followed by either swallowing or spitting out the food.
  8. Orthorexia Nervosa: Orthorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by an unhealthy obsession with “healthy” eating, which can lead to an extreme restriction of food intake and malnutrition.
  9. Night Eating Syndrome: Night eating syndrome is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of eating during the night, often with a sense of loss of control.
  10. Diabulimia: Diabulimia is an eating disorder that occurs in people with type 1 diabetes who deliberately manipulate their insulin doses to lose weight, which can lead to serious medical complications.

The prevalence and ranking of eating disorders may vary by country, and there may not be a clear consensus on the exact order or top 10 list for each country.

The top 10 eating disorders in the United Kingdom are:

  1. Binge eating disorder
  2. Bulimia nervosa
  3. Anorexia nervosa
  4. Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID)
  5. Other specified feeding or eating disorder (OSFED)
  6. Pica
  7. Rumination disorder
  8. Orthorexia
  9. Diabulimia
  10. Night eating syndrome

The top 10 eating disorders in Israel are:

  1. Binge eating disorder
  2. Anorexia nervosa
  3. Bulimia nervosa
  4. Orthorexia
  5. Compulsive exercise disorder
  6. Muscle dysmorphia
  7. Diabulimia
  8. Night eating syndrome
  9. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD)
  10. Food addiction

The top 10 eating disorders in Canada are:

  1. Binge eating disorder
  2. Anorexia nervosa
  3. Bulimia nervosa
  4. OSFED
  5. ARFID
  6. Night eating syndrome
  7. Pica
  8. Rumination disorder
  9. Body dysmorphic disorder
  10. Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID)

The top 10 eating disorders in Greece are:

  1. Anorexia nervosa
  2. Bulimia nervosa
  3. Binge eating disorder
  4. OSFED
  5. ARFID
  6. Diabulimia
  7. Night eating syndrome
  8. Pica
  9. Rumination disorder
  10. Orthorexia

The top 10 eating disorders in Australia are:

  1. Anorexia nervosa
  2. Bulimia nervosa
  3. Binge eating disorder
  4. ARFID
  5. OSFED
  6. Pica
  7. Rumination disorder
  8. Night eating syndrome
  9. Body dysmorphic disorder
  10. Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID)

The top 10 eating disorders in Germany are:

  1. Binge eating disorder
  2. Bulimia nervosa
  3. Anorexia nervosa
  4. OSFED
  5. ARFID
  6. Body dysmorphic disorder
  7. Diabulimia
  8. Night eating syndrome
  9. Pica
  10. Rumination disorder

The top 10 eating disorders in Russia are:

  1. Anorexia nervosa
  2. Bulimia nervosa
  3. Binge eating disorder
  4. OSFED
  5. ARFID
  6. Night eating syndrome
  7. Orthorexia
  8. Pica
  9. Body dysmorphic disorder
  10. Compulsive exercise disorder

The top 10 eating disorders in China are:

  1. Anorexia nervosa
  2. Bulimia nervosa
  3. Binge eating disorder
  4. Pica
  5. ARFID
  6. OSFED
  7. Night eating syndrome
  8. Rumination disorder
  9. Body dysmorphic disorder
  10. Orthorexia

The top 10 eating disorders in India are:

  1. Anorexia nervosa
  2. Bulimia nervosa
  3. Binge eating disorder
  4. Pica
  5. ARFID
  6. OSFED
  7. Rumination disorder
  8. Night eating syndrome
  9. Body dysmorphic disorder
  10. Compulsive exercise disorder

The top 10 digestive disorders in the USA, based on prevalence and impact on quality of life, are:

  1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis
  3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  4. Peptic Ulcer Disease
  5. Gastroparesis
  6. Celiac Disease
  7. Gallbladder Disease
  8. Pancreatitis
  9. Diverticular Disease
  10. Hemorrhoids

The top 10 digestive disorders in the UK are:

  1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  2. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis
  4. Gallstones
  5. Diverticular Disease
  6. Peptic Ulcer Disease
  7. Colorectal Cancer
  8. Helicobacter pylori infection
  9. Chronic pancreatitis
  10. Liver disease

The top 10 digestive disorders in Israel are:

  1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  2. Fatty Liver Disease (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis)
  3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis
  4. Colorectal Cancer
  5. Gallstones
  6. Celiac Disease
  7. Pancreatitis
  8. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  9. Helicobacter pylori infection
  10. Hemorrhoids

The top 10 digestive disorders in Canada are:

  1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  2. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis
  4. Peptic Ulcer Disease
  5. Colorectal Cancer
  6. Gallstones
  7. Pancreatitis
  8. Hemorrhoids
  9. Diverticular Disease
  10. Celiac Disease

The top 10 digestive disorders in Greece are:

  1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  2. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis
  4. Peptic Ulcer Disease
  5. Gallstones
  6. Hemorrhoids
  7. Diverticular Disease
  8. Chronic Pancreatitis
  9. Celiac Disease
  10. Colorectal Cancer

The top 10 digestive disorders in Australia are:

  1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  2. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis
  4. Diverticular Disease
  5. Gallstones
  6. Colorectal Cancer
  7. Hemorrhoids
  8. Celiac Disease
  9. Pancreatitis
  10. Peptic Ulcer Disease

The top 10 digestive disorders in Germany are:

  1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  2. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis
  4. Peptic Ulcer Disease
  5. Gallstones
  6. Pancreatitis
  7. Hemorrhoids
  8. Diverticular Disease
  9. Colorectal Cancer
  10. Lactose Intolerance

The top 10 digestive disorders in Russia are:

  1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  2. Peptic Ulcer Disease
  3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  4. Colorectal Cancer
  5. Chronic Pancreatitis
  6. Gallstones
  7. Diverticular Disease
  8. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis
  9. Esophageal Cancer
  10. Hemorrhoids

The top 10 digestive disorders in China are:

  1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  2. Gallstones
  3. Peptic Ulcer Disease
  4. Colorectal Cancer
  5. Esophageal Cancer
  6. Liver Disease
  7. Chronic Pancreatitis
  8. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis
  9. Gastrointestinal Infections
  10. Intestinal Obstruction

The top 10 digestive disorders in India are:

  1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  2. Peptic Ulcer Disease
  3. Gallstones
  4. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis
  5. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  6. Liver Disease
  7. Celiac Disease
  8. Pancreatitis
  9. Colorectal Cancer
  10. Hemorrhoids

Verified by: Rami Diab (May 5, 2023)

Citation: Rami Diab. (May 5, 2023). Eating and Digestive Disorders Overview, Pathophysiology, Novel Therapies. Medcoi Journal of Medicine, 10(2). urn:medcoi:article22270.

Tags:
, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

There are no comments yet

× You need to log in to enter the discussion
© 2024 Medcoi LLC, all rights reserved.
go to top